Building real Mobile Websites with Drupal

There are tons of articles and discussions about advantages and disadvantages of responsive and adaptive web design but this article won't get into that. This is just about the mobile web site I want to get, and how to build it with Drupal. Keep in mind there are plenty of options about how to build a mobile version of your web site. Possibly most of the people will be just fine using one of the many responsive themes that there are available. They work just fine.

But the thing is I want a fully different version of my web site for mobile devices and I want the kind of consistency on which a URL matches exactly to a web site page. Also I've been checking a number of top web sites, mostly from content publishing companies and guess what... most of them have a specific mobile version of their web site (That's adaptive by the way), using a different domain for mobile. Well, I want more or less that, built with Drupal, of course.

So how can I build a clean / powerful / simple mobile version of my web, that won't require a different web site, thus it runs with the same content, but still allows full control of options for a mobile device. These are my requirements or, in other words, how I think a mobile website should work:

  • Different URLs for different versions of the page, that allows user switching and proper indexing by search engines.
  • Automatic redirection depending on device, though the user must be warned and have the option to switch back.
  • Both mobile and standard version can be accessed with any device.
  • Full control of theme, blocks, display, etc for the mobile version.
  • Performance: Page caching must work just fine, no core hacks, just regular Drupal caching using url.
  • Let's save bandwidth and battery life or Do not deliver to a mobile device the full ton of markup they're not going to see.
  • No Javascript trickery for image / content loading. HTML is HTML, content is content, and images are part of that.

Or in short, since Drupal provides us with, up to a point, nice separation between content and presentation I want the full control of the presentation for both standard and mobile web sites.

When searching for Drupal modules for this purpose, I couldn't find the right combination of modules. There are plenty of mobile_xxx modules, but none of them really allows for the kind of options I want, and just a few of them have a released stable version. So I've figured out I can use some of them for my purpose, but I'd need also to build a few custom ones. And this is how I've implemented it, for which I've built my own collection of simple modules you can find on my sandbox, each of them with a very specific purpose.

Getting multiple domains

As I want to have my own standard and mobile domain, there's already a Drupal module that's allows a great deal of flexibility for serving different domains from the same site: Domain Access.
Just by enabling Domain Access, I can have two versions of the site running on different domains, can set a different theme for each, and customize them up to a point.
Moreover, there are lots of other modules that integrate well with Domain Access, so this provides really way more options than the few described here.

Redirecting to the right version

Now we need each domain to be aware of the other and we'll need something else for switching/redirecting between them. These two modules will do that:

  • Mobile Domain, which provides two variables, one for which type of domain is each of them and another one for keeping the alternate domain. This can be configured nicely with different variables per domain (we must select these variables as 'per domain' manually though, sorry but this was faster than writing a proper install script).
  • Mobile Domain Switch, that will do automatic switching between domains depending on the device, while still providing the user with options to switch back to the other domain. These modules rely on Browscap to redirect each device to the right version.

Note at this point we've reduced the standard vs. mobile web site to having two different domains we can set up independently, but that's up to a point. We may still want more options and flexibility.

Full control of presentation

Now we have different themes for each version, that gives us also the power of configuring blocks for each of them separately, which is nice.

I want my desktop version to present a few posts and a block listing a few more, and I want my mobile version to present a plain list but with a different format and a bit longer, since there won't be a side block for seeing other posts. There is a setting in Drupal for controlling that, 'Number of posts in main page' so all I need is to switch this variable value for each of the domains.

Then, for a teaser list, like the one on the front page, we want to configure the presentation differently for each version. I've needed another module for this that does exactly that: Provides a 'Mobile teaser' and a 'Mobile full' display modes and for any other display module, it will use an alternate one with the 'mobile_' prefix when it exists.

Nice, now we can deliver properly sized text and images for each version of the site.

How to tell search engine crawlers

I guess they want to know, and we want them to know, that they are getting two alternate versions of the page. The Mobile Domain Switch module will take care of this too, and will add, on the mobile version something like:

<link rel="canonical" href="" >

And on the desktop version:
<link rel="alternate" media="only screen and (max-width: 640px)" href="" >

What about 'Mobile variables'?

By using the extreme flexibility of the Variable module we cannot only have different variable values per language, but we can also have different values for each domain, that's the Domain Variable module I've talked about some time ago. That would kind of fix our problem when using different domains for mobile and desktop, but also we can have a set of variables that apply only to mobile domains or standard domains, and this is what I've also built in my sandbox.

(I have somewhere a Variable module that depends only on Browscap, though I'm not using it finally, it should be somewhere in my sandbox..)

On top of all this you can also have a responsive theme. Responsive themes don't usually make the difference on whether a device is mobile or not, but on the screen size, and that is also good and it was good even before mobile devices. So there's no reason why you cannot use a responsive theme for mobile or desktop devices of multiple sizes.

Well, this site is an example of all these modules I've talked about so you can check it out. The theme is not beautiful but works. Oh, and note the language switcher in my mobile theme displays only one language, the one you can switch to, that's advantages of having a different mobile theme.

Have fun, feedback would be appreciated, specific questions about modules are welcomed on that module's issue tracker and please, remember sandbox modules are not for production sites unless they are your sandbox modules.

Update 2014-05-29: Promoted the mobile_domain sandbox module to provide a downloadable file (development version).

Update 2017-01-01: Updating this site's design, not using mobile site anymore.


I'm thinking of using frontend js framework like angularjs to build for mobile version.
Of course it required more work to do than a mobile drupal theme and settings.


AngularJS may be cool for building interactive web applications for mobile though I'm not sure it is specially suited for building responsive nor adaptive websites.


Very useful. I love the list "how a mobile website should work".

How to accomplish the same in D8? The Domain Access module is missing, so is Domain Variable and your sandbox module. Browscap has a D8 release (

Or might we be able to take advantage of new D8 features and do it another way? Or use a second best solution? Do you have some hints on how to approach this?

Thanks for this excellent article.

Building a similar approach for Drupal 8 should be easier as it has a more flexible architecture. Since it comes with a powerful configuration system, Variable module won't be needed anymore and Domain Access should be easy to upgrade.
But of course if you want to do it before module upgrades are released you'll need to code all this yourself. So it is either you code it or you wait for the modules to be upgraded.


Hi Jose,

First of all thanks for your article, it is very interesting and I hope it will be helpful to me.

One question, whe you say "Then, for a teaser list, like the one on the front page, we want to configure the presentation differently for each version. I've needed another module for this that does exactly that: Provides a 'Mobile teaser' and a 'Mobile full' display modes and for any other display module, it will use an alternate one with the 'mobile_' prefix when it exists."

Which is the module that provides to you the 'Mobile teaser'?

Thanks in advance


The package is Mobile domain, linked at the bottom of the article. It contains a module called 'Mobile Domain Display"


I can see the link but can't see where to download the module.

Martin Fuggle

No download yet, you need to check it out from git.


I must be really dumb but I still cannot see how to get hold of the Mobile Domain stuff. Could you please give me some instructions targeted for a three year old.


I realize I should have added some "developers only" warning because in order to grab a sandbox module, you must use git.
Anyway, what I've done instead is "promoting" the module, so it can be downloaded now. Remember it is an early development version, that is not for production yet, which means "use at your own risk"...


Many thanks...

The links to Mobile Domain give a 404 - Not found error...

This articles is very helpful. I managed to get the mobile version in a test environment up and running in under 15 minutes. However I could not find out how the link back to the main site will work once the mobile version is displayed. I'm sure I missed something. I would appreciate any pointers on how to set it up and what would the link point to, so that the server provides the main desktop version instead.


Kevin Carbonaro

Jose, thank you for all the effort you put into contributing Drupal modules. I'm pretty sure you helped make the internationalization and accessibility of Drupal 8 possible. While technical articles are helpful, there's still client education needs. To that end, I'm not a Drupal developer, but I do work with CMS clients. I think Axelerant's recent article on why Drupal 8 and mobile accessibility is important for global reach could be useful for you. It's at Do let me know if it helps your clients choose the solution you recommend. Michael

Hi, Jose. Could you clarify you mention Mobile Domain Switch in your post,
but there's
no link to it at the end of the post, also I didn't find on the web either.

Do we need this module in situation given in your article?
I have Domain Access, Domain Variable and used Mobile Subdomain module.
It worked great before I installed Domain variable (needed for
Now Mobile Subdomain doesn't respect settings saved per domain and redirects
all 2 desktop websites to single mobile version (but there's 2 mobile
websites, one for each desktop websites).
That's why I looking for a substitute.


That's part of the "Mobile Domain" one, that is a collection of submodules. Anyway, that's not being developed anymore, so I'd look for a better option.